Transaminases are one of the enzymes that can be found in the liver. Its values are very important because they indicate some diseases that affect this organ and that can become serious. However, sometimes, the values are altered as can happen in pregnancy.
So, what are the normal transaminase values? In we will explain what these enzymes consist of, their correct types and levels, as well as their relationship with diseases.
What are transaminases
As we have indicated above, transaminases are enzymes that are mainly present in the liver, which is the organ that produces them. However, they can also be in the kidneys, muscles or brain. Their levels show up in blood tests. In this way, an analysis indicates if they are low, high or if the person is within the normal parameters of transaminases.
Depending on the results of the analysis, it may happen that it is indicated that you suffer from some disease, mainly of the hepatic type. Normally, the alteration of these levels is related to certain pathologies, especially when you have high transaminases.
It is always convenient to know the level of transaminases, because these enzymes are very important for the body's metabolism to function properly.
Types of transaminases and meaning of their levels
Within the transaminases we can talk about several types: the GOT or AST, the GPT or ALT and the GGT. Now, let's go into more detail about each of them:
- GOT or glutamicoxalacetic transaminase, which is also known as AST, is in most organs of the human body, although it is mostly concentrated in the liver. In addition, its presence is also significant in muscles and red blood cells. In general, when these transaminases are high, it is indicated that cell destruction has been generated.
- GPT or glutamicpyruvic transaminase, known as alanine aminotransferase or ALT, is in the liver and kidneys. To a lesser extent it is located in the muscles and red blood cells. Its role in the human body is to manufacture glucose. Such an alteration is related to glucose problems in the body, such as diabetes.
- GGT transaminase or gamma glutamyl transpeptidase is the one that is most present in more parts of the body. In fact, it is also found in the pancreas, spleen, heart, brain and kidneys, among others. Its high blood levels are usually associated with diseases of the liver, pancreas or some part or all of the bile duct mainly.
Normal blood transaminase levels
As always when talking about blood tests, there may be some variations in the results depending on the clinical laboratory that performed the analysis. However, as a guideline, we can talk about a series of normal values of transaminases depending on their type:
- GOT transaminases are within normal when the analysis reflects a level of between 0 and 37 units per liter.
- GPT transaminases have normal values when they are between 0 and 41 units per liter.
- GGT transaminases show adequate parameters when they are between 11 and 50 units per liter.
Diseases related to high transaminase levels
In this way, an alteration of the normal values of transaminases would indicate that something is not working well in the body. In general, diseases produce a higher level of GPT or ALT transaminases than GOT or AST. The latter, the got or AST transaminases, when they double or triple the ALT level, indicate a problem in the liver related to alcohol intake.
In addition, when the ALT and AST transaminases are high and have a level of more than ten times above normal parameters, it is a sign of hepatitis or acute liver inflammation.
Causes of changes in normal transaminase levels
Although the alteration of the level of transaminases, especially when there are high transaminases, is related to diseases, there are situations in which they rise for causes that have nothing to do with any disease.
This happens especially with GGT, because it is common for pregnant women to have high levels of GGT, especially when they are in the third trimester of gestation. Also, children can give higher values of the GGT and be within normality. This occurs because the placenta and growing bone mass cause higher levels normally than we have discussed as standards.
From we hope to have explained well what the normal levels of transaminases are and helped with it to make a first reading of the blood tests. However, do not forget to ask the doctor all the doubts you have and show him the analyzes to rule out that you have any disease or can prescribe the appropriate treatment.