Therapy for depression: evidence-based treatments that work


You feel sad, hopeless, and unmotivated. Getting out of bed is a struggle and life has lost its joy and meaning. Depression is a serious medical illness, but the good news is there are evidence-based treatments that can help you feel better. As a mental health professional, I have specialized training and expertise in depression treatment. I use proven therapies, including cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy, and medication, to help people with depression improve their mood, change negative thought patterns, and build coping strategies. These treatments have been studied in clinical trials and shown to be effective for many people. Depression is very treatable, so if you’ve been feeling down for more than two weeks, seek help from a licensed therapist. With the right treatment and support, you can start to feel like yourself again.

Cognitive behavioural therapy: challenging negative thoughts

To effectively manage depression, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is one of the most well-researched and effective treatment options. CBT works by helping you challenge negative thought patterns and replace them with more constructive ones.

  1. Identify negative thoughts. The first step is learning to identify negative and illogical thoughts about yourself, your experiences, and your future. These are known as cognitive distortions and include things like all-or-nothing thinking, catastrophizing, and negative self-labeling.
  2. Challenge negative thoughts. Once you identify negative thoughts, your therapist will teach you how to challenge them using evidence and logic. For example, if you think “I'm worthless because I didn't get that promotion at work,” challenge that by looking at your strengths and accomplishments.
  3. Replace with balanced thoughts. Replace negative thoughts with more balanced and compassionate ones. For the example above, a replacement thought could be “I'm disappointed to miss out on a promotion, but I know I'm good at my job and still have a lot to offer.”
  4. Change behaviours. As you learn to challenge negative thoughts, your therapist will also help you change the behaviors that may be reinforcing your depression like isolation, poor self-care, or lack of exercise. Making healthy lifestyle changes can significantly improve your mood and mental wellbeing.

With practice, CBT can be an incredibly effective way to overcome negative thought patterns, gain awareness and new coping strategies, and find greater wellness and happiness. Please speak to a doctor if you're interested in CBT treatment options for depression.

Interpersonal therapy: improving relationships

Interpersonal therapy (IPT) focuses on addressing interpersonal issues and communication problems that may contribute to or exacerbate depression. IPT can be an effective treatment for depression, especially for those whose symptoms are related to life transitions, grief, relationship conflicts or social isolation.

Identifying relationship issues

The first step in IPT is to identify problematic relationships and interactions that may be linked to the depression. The therapist will explore the patient’s important relationships, communication challenges, life changes and stressors to gain insight into their impact on mood and symptoms. Recognizing unhealthy dynamics and patterns can help motivate the patient to make needed adjustments.

Improving communication skills

A key part of IPT involves learning better communication techniques to build more supportive relationships and connections. The therapist teaches assertiveness training, conflict resolution, and active listening skills. Patients practice expressing feelings, needs and setting boundaries in a constructive way. These skills help to reduce feelings of hopelessness and improve self-esteem.

Setting interpersonal goals

Based on the assessment, the patient and therapist work together to establish specific and realistic goals for improving relationships and social interactions. Goals may include decreasing conflict with a spouse, reconnecting with old friends, joining a local interest group to increase social engagement or learning to speak openly about feelings with family members. Achieving these goals leads to decreased symptoms of depression and an improved sense of well-being.

IPT typically requires 12 to 16 weekly sessions. For some, “booster” sessions may be needed to reinforce new skills and coping strategies. IPT can be used alone or in combination with medications or other therapies. By enhancing interpersonal functioning and social support, IPT helps patients gain independence from depression and build resilience against future episodes. Overall, IPT is a collaborative, practical and goal-oriented treatment that can provide long-lasting benefits.

Problem-solving therapy: developing coping strategies

Problem-solving therapy (PST) teaches coping strategies to help you better manage symptoms of depression. PST helps you develop a set of skills to systematically work through challenges and find solutions.

Identify the problem

The first step is to pinpoint the specific problem causing distress. This could be symptoms like fatigue, difficulty concentrating, or feelings of hopelessness. Define the problem in concrete terms to gain awareness and clarity.

Set a realistic goal

Set a pragmatic goal to improve the situation. Make sure the goal is achievable and within your control. For example, if fatigue is an issue, a goal could be to engage in light exercise like a 30-minute walk 3 times per week. Start small and build up from there.

Generate multiple solutions

Brainstorm several solutions to your problem. Think outside the box and list any options that come to mind without judgment. Some solutions may not be feasible, but keep an open mind at this stage. The more solutions generated the better.

Evaluate and select an option

Review the list of solutions and evaluate the pros and cons of each. Choose an option with the potential for the most positive outcome. Discuss with your therapist if needed to determine the solution most likely to succeed based on your unique situation.

Implement the plan

Put your solution into action. Start right away to build momentum, but be gentle with yourself if it takes time to implement fully. Make adjustments to the plan along the way based on what is working and build on your successes.

Review and revise

Meet with your therapist regularly to review your progress, get feedback, and make changes as needed. If the solution is not providing relief, return to the earlier steps and choose an alternative option to try. With practice, the PST process will become second nature.

PST provides a structured way to build resilience and coping strategies. By working through challenges in a systematic manner, you can gain more control over your depression and ability to problem-solve in a productive way. With the support of a therapist, PST skills can be developed and strengthened over time.

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: awareness and acceptance

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) combines cognitive therapy with mindfulness techniques like meditation, breathing exercises, and yoga. This evidence-based treatment helps people become more aware of their thoughts and feelings, and accept them without judgment.

Recognising thoughts and feelings

MBCT teaches you to recognise automatic negative thoughts and cognitive distortions, like catastrophizing or all-or-nothing thinking. You learn to identify thoughts and feelings as they arise, accepting them with an attitude of curiosity and compassion. This awareness and acceptance can help prevent negative thoughts and feelings from spiraling out of control.

Meditation and mindfulness practices

MBCT incorporates guided meditations, gentle yoga, and breathing exercises. These practices strengthen your ability to focus your awareness on the present moment, rather than dwelling on the past or worrying about the future. Spending just a few minutes a day being fully present can help reduce symptoms of depression and improve your mood and outlook.

Accepting your experience

A key part of MBCT is developing an accepting attitude toward your thoughts and feelings. You learn to observe them without judging them as good or bad. This can help you avoid rumination and prevent negative experiences from intensifying depression. Acceptance also allows you to respond to situations with greater wisdom and equanimity.

MBCT has been shown to be as effective as antidepressants for some people. It works by changing your relationship to your thoughts and feelings, not by challenging negative thoughts or avoiding triggers. By cultivating mindfulness and acceptance, MBCT can help you develop a more balanced outlook and experience greater peace and well-being.

Medication for depression: the role of antidepressants

Medication, specifically antidepressants, can be an effective component of treatment for depression. Antidepressants work by altering the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain that regulate mood and stress. The most common antidepressants are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and bupropion (Wellbutrin).


SSRIs like fluoxetine (Prozac), escitalopram (Lexapro), and sertraline (Zoloft) work by increasing levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin. SSRIs are usually the first line of medication for depression due to their effectiveness and safety. Common side effects include nausea, headaches, and insomnia. It can take 4 to 6 weeks to experience the full effects of SSRIs.


SNRIs, such as duloxetine (Cymbalta) and venlafaxine (Effexor), block the reabsorption of both serotonin and norepinephrine, another mood-regulating neurotransmitter. SNRIs may cause side effects like high blood pressure, insomnia, and loss of appetite. Like SSRIs, the full benefits are usually achieved in 6 weeks.


Bupropion (Wellbutrin) works by blocking the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine. Bupropion is less likely to cause weight gain or sexual side effects compared to SSRIs and SNRIs. Common side effects include headaches, dry mouth, and nausea. Full effects are felt within 1 to 2 weeks.

Medication for depression often requires trial-and-error to find the right drug and dosage. It can take several months of medication to feel significant improvement. Antidepressants also need to be taken for at least 6 to 12 months after symptoms improve to prevent relapse. While not without challenges, medication can be very helpful for gaining control over depression symptoms and making other treatments like therapy more effective. Discuss medication options with your doctor to determine what may work best based on your symptoms, medical history, and personal preferences.

Combining medication and therapy for maximum benefit

Combining antidepressant medication and psychotherapy can be an effective treatment approach for many people with depression. Together, medication and therapy provide a multifaceted treatment that addresses both the biological and environmental causes of depression.

Medication for symptom relief

Antidepressant medications work by altering the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain that regulate mood and stress. The most common options are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and bupropion. Medication can help relieve symptoms like depressed mood, loss of interest in activities, changes in appetite and sleep, difficulty concentrating, and physical aches and pains. It may take several weeks of use before the full effects are felt, so patience and persistence are needed.

Therapy for learning coping strategies

Psychotherapy, or talk therapy, helps you learn skills and strategies for coping with negative thoughts and feelings. Therapy approaches like cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy (IPT) have been shown effective for depression. It can help you identify negative thought and behaviour patterns, learn coping strategies, set small achievable goals, and find support. Speaking with a therapist regularly can also help prevent relapse or worsening of symptoms.

Combined benefits

When medication and therapy are combined, the effects tend to be even greater. Medication helps stabilize your mood so you can fully engage in and benefit from therapy. Therapy helps you develop skills and strategies to better manage your depression, even after stopping medication. Studies show combination treatments often have higher success rates, especially for severe depression.

The appropriate treatment approach depends on the severity and type of your depression, as well as your personal preferences. Speaking with a doctor or mental health professional about the options can help determine the best plan for you based on your unique situation and needs. With the right treatment, depression can be managed well and you can feel better again.

Alternative treatments for depression: exercise, light, and diet

In addition to traditional talk therapy and medication, alternative treatments for depression such as exercise, exposure to natural light, and diet changes show promising results.


Regular exercise is strongly linked to both the prevention and improvement of depression symptoms. Aerobic exercise in particular, such as walking, jogging, swimming or biking, releases endorphins that can help improve your mood. Even just 30 minutes a day a few times a week can help. Try going for a walk during your lunch break, or consider a weekend bike ride. Start slowly and build up your endurance over time.

Exposure to natural light

Exposure to natural light or bright light therapy helps to regulate your circadian rhythm and increases serotonin levels, which can help alleviate depression. Try spending more time outside during the day, open your blinds to let in natural light, or use a light therapy box. Light therapy boxes emit bright light that mimics natural outdoor light. Sitting in front of a light therapy box for 30 minutes a day has been shown to significantly improve depression symptoms.

Diet changes

A balanced, nutritious diet can boost your mood and help ease symptoms of depression. Focus on whole foods like fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins. Limit processed foods, sugar, and unhealthy fats. Some key recommendations include:

  1. Eat more omega-3 fatty acids found in fish, nuts, and seeds. Omega-3s are good for both the heart and brain.
  2. Choose complex carbohydrates that are high in fiber like oatmeal, brown rice, and quinoa. They release energy slowly and keep you feeling full.
  3. Add more folate-rich foods such as spinach and black beans. Folate helps produce mood-regulating neurotransmitters.
  4. Stay hydrated and drink plenty of water. Dehydration can worsen symptoms of depression.

Alternative treatments for depression, when used in combination with professional treatment plans, can be very effective for improving your mood and easing symptoms. Making lifestyle changes through diet, exercise, and exposure to natural light may take time, but can have lasting benefits for your mental and physical health.


1. How long will therapy take?

The length of therapy for depression can vary significantly based on several factors, including:

  1. The severity and duration of your depression symptoms. More severe or long-lasting depression may require longer treatment.
  2. The type of therapy. Short-term therapies like CBT may last 6-20 weeks. Ongoing or maintenance therapies may last 6-12 months or longer.
  3. Your willingness and ability to actively participate in treatment. The more you put into therapy, the more you will get out of it.
  4. The frequency of therapy sessions. Weekly or biweekly sessions may enable faster progress than monthly sessions.
  5. Your individual situation and needs. Therapists will tailor treatment length to each client.

On average, most people need at least 3 to 6 months of weekly therapy to overcome the symptoms of depression. Don't get discouraged if it takes longer. Healing from depression is a journey, not a destination. With ongoing maintenance, the skills and insights you gain from therapy can last for years.

2. Will medication or therapy help more?

Medication and therapy for depression are both effective, and often a combination of the two provides the best results. Medication helps adjust the chemical imbalance in the brain that contributes to depression. Therapy helps you address the underlying issues fuelling your depression and make positive lifestyle changes.

For mild to moderate depression, therapy alone may be sufficient. For severe depression, medication combined with therapy is typically the most effective approach. The choice ultimately comes down to your personal preferences and the recommendation of your doctor or therapist. Both medication and therapy have proven benefits, so don't rule out either option.

3. What if I can't afford therapy?

There are several options for low-cost or free depression therapy:

  1. Check with your insurance provider. Many insurance plans cover at least part of the cost of therapy.
  2. Look for therapists who offer a sliding-scale fee. Some therapists will adjust their fees based on your ability to pay.
  3. See if your employer offers an Employee Assistance Program (EAP). Many EAP programs offer free short-term counseling and referrals to mental health professionals.
  4. Check if there are any free or low-cost mental health clinics in your area. Some are run by nonprofit organisations or teaching hospitals.
  5. Explore online therapy options. Some online services like Talkspace and BetterHelp offer lower fees than traditional face-to-face therapy.
  6. Ask therapists if they offer a free initial consultation. This can help you evaluate if the therapist is a good fit before committing to long-term treatment.
  7. Consider group therapy. Fees for group therapy sessions are often substantially lower than individual therapy.

Don't lose hope. There are many resources for people struggling with depression. Help is out there if you look for it. With time and persistence, you can find.


Therapy for depression provides hope and help for those struggling with this debilitating illness. With a range of evidence-based treatments available, the key is finding the approach that works for your unique situation and needs. Don't lose hope – there are caring professionals and treatment options to help you feel better. You owe it to yourself and your loved ones to explore the possibilities. While it can take time, the rewards of overcoming depression and reclaiming your life are well worth the effort. Help and healing are out there if you reach for them. You can feel good again.

If you would like to know about the symptoms of depression, i encourage you to check this another article on depression.


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