Do I have depression? how to recognise the symptoms


As days turn into weeks of feeling sad or hopeless, have you started to wonder if your mood is normal or could be a sign of something more? Depression affects over 300 million people worldwide, impacting people of all ages, genders, and backgrounds. However, the symptoms of depression can sometimes be subtle and difficult to recognize in yourself. If you've noticed changes in your mood, thoughts, or behavior recently, it's worth learning more about the signs of depression to determine if you or someone you care about may be suffering from this serious but treatable condition. By understanding the symptoms, you'll be better equipped to find the support and treatment needed to start feeling like yourself again.

Feeling sad vs having depression: know the difference

Feeling down from time to time is a normal part of life. However, if you frequently feel sad or hopeless and these feelings last for long periods of time, you may have depression. It's important to recognise the difference between temporary mood changes and the symptoms of depression.

Depression is a serious medical condition that impacts your thoughts, feelings, and daily activities.

Common symptoms of depression

Depression can manifest itself in several ways. Some of the most common symptoms to be aware of include:

  1. Feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or emptiness that persist for weeks or months. If you experience an ongoing depressed mood and a loss of interest in activities or hobbies you once enjoyed, this could indicate depression.
  2. Changes in sleep or appetite. Both sleeping too much or too little and eating too much or too little can be signs of depression. Lethargy, low energy, and fatigue are also frequent symptoms.
  3. Difficulty concentrating or making decisions. You may notice impaired memory, indecisiveness, or trouble focusing during regular tasks. Mental fog and confusion are signs your cognition has been impacted.
  4. Feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt. Do you have an irrational negative view of yourself and frequent feelings of remorse or regret over perceived faults? This distorted thinking is a hallmark of depression.
  5. Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide. If you are experiencing suicidal ideation or making plans to end your life, seek emergency help from a doctor or call emergency services immediately.
  6. Unexplained physical symptoms. Some people experience headaches, digestive issues, pain, or other physical problems that do not seem to have an identifiable medical cause. These somatic symptoms are a manifestation of the underlying depression.

Depression is a serious but treatable condition. Recognising the signs and symptoms is the first step to getting the help and support you need. Don't hesitate to consult a physician or mental health professional if you or a loved one exhibits these indicators of depression. The good news is, with the right treatment plan and support, people with depression can and do get better. If you exhibit several of these signs, talk to your doctor. Help is out there. If you wish to know more details about the Therapy for Depression, check out this another article on Therapy for Depression.

Types of depression: major depression, dysthymia, seasonal affective disorder, postpartum depression, etc.

Major depression

Major depression, or major depressive disorder, is a serious type of depression characterised by a persistent feeling of sadness and hopelessness that lasts for at least two weeks. Symptoms may include as what we mentioned in the beginning of this article:

  1. Loss of interest in activities or hobbies once enjoyed
  2. Changes in appetite or sleep
  3. Difficulty concentrating or making decisions
  4. Feelings of worthlessness or guilt
  5. Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide

Major depression requires treatment, which typically includes medication, talk therapy, or a combination of the two. With proper diagnosis and treatment, most people with major depression can achieve relief from symptoms and a return to previous levels of functioning.


Dysthymia, or persistent depressive disorder, is a chronic form of depression in which a person experiences a depressed mood for most of the day, for more days than not, for at least two years. People with dysthymia may experience some symptoms of major depression but with less severity. They can function adequately but rarely feel a sense of well-being. Treatment often involves long-term psychotherapy and medication.

Seasonal affective disorder

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that occurs at the same time each year, usually in the fall or winter. It is linked to shorter days and lack of sunlight during the winter. Symptoms are the same as depression and may include changes in mood, sleep problems, lethargy, difficulty concentrating, and weight gain. Light therapy, medication, and talk therapy are common treatments for SAD.

Postpartum depression

Postpartum depression refers to the depression some women experience after giving birth. It can occur any time within the first year post-childbirth. In addition to the usual symptoms of depression, postpartum depression can also include anxiety, panic attacks, and even obsessive thoughts of harming the baby. Treatment options are the same as for other types of depression. With treatment, most women recover and can experience healthy bonding with their baby.

What causes depression? genetics, traumatic life events, medical conditions, etc.

Depression can have many contributing causes, including:


Some people may be genetically predisposed to developing depression. Having a close family member with depression increases the risk. Depression is not caused by a single gene, but rather multiple genes that interact with each other and the environment.

Traumatic life events

Experiencing a traumatic, stressful life event such as the death of a loved one, a difficult relationship, financial troubles, or a serious health issue can trigger an episode of depression. The stress and negative impact of these events may lead to changes in mood and mental wellbeing.

Medical conditions

Certain medical conditions or substances can also cause or contribute to depression. Conditions such as chronic illness, insomnia, chronic pain, or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are linked to a higher risk of depression. Additionally, some medications like corticosteroids or opioid pain medications may have depression as a possible side effect.

Hormone imbalances

Changes or imbalances in certain hormone levels may factor into depression. Conditions such as hypothyroidism, postpartum depression, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder are linked to changes in hormone levels that can trigger or worsen symptoms of depression.

Substance use

Excessive use or withdrawal from certain substances including alcohol, caffeine, nicotine, or recreational drugs can also lead to or worsen symptoms of depression due to their effects on mood and stress levels. Reducing or eliminating use of these substances may help improve depression.

Personality factors

Certain personality traits, such as low self-esteem, pessimism, or being overly self-critical or pessimistic, may increase your risk of depression. These traits can negatively impact your relationships, life events, and other factors that trigger depression. Learning skills like positive self-talk, problem-solving, and identifying negative thoughts can help address these risk factors.

In summary, depression is often caused by a combination of multiple factors rather than any single risk factor alone. The more risk factors you have, the higher your vulnerability to depression. However, everyone's experience with depression is different. Even with multiple risk factors, depression is still a highly treatable condition. Speaking to a doctor or mental health professional is the first step to getting the help you need. If you wish to know more details about the Therapy for Depression, check out this another article on Therapy for Depression.

When to see a doctor about depression

If you experience symptoms of depression for more than a couple of weeks, it's a good idea to see your doctor. They can determine if you meet the criteria for a depression diagnosis and discuss treatment options to help you feel better.

Seek help right away if:

  1. You're having thoughts of suicide or self-harm. Depression can be life-threatening, so don't delay getting emergency care.
  2. Your symptoms are severe or disabling. If depression is making it difficult to function in your daily life or causing problems with relationships or work, consult your doctor right away.
  3. You've tried self-help strategies without improvement. While lifestyle changes can help with milder depression, more serious depression usually requires professional treatment like therapy or medication.
  4. You have additional health issues. Comorbid conditions like anxiety, substance abuse, chronic pain, or insomnia can complicate depression treatment, so be sure to tell your doctor about any other symptoms you're experiencing.

What to expect during your visit:

Your doctor will evaluate your symptoms and medical history to determine if you meet the criteria for a diagnosis of depression or a related disorder. They may perform blood tests or other screening to rule out other potential causes for your symptoms. Discuss all treatment options, including:

  1. Antidepressant medications to help balance brain chemicals. Several types are available, so you may need to try different ones to find what works best for you.
  2. Psychotherapy or counseling, which can be very effective for depression. Options include cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal therapy (IPT), and problem-solving therapy.
  3. Light therapy, which uses exposure to bright light to help with symptoms. This is often used for seasonal affective disorder.
  4. Lifestyle changes, like exercise, sleep, and diet modifications. While not sufficient for severe depression, lifestyle interventions can boost the effects of medication or therapy.

With the right treatment and management, depression can be overcome. But the first step is talking to your doctor. Don't hesitate to call right away if you or someone you know needs help.

I'm feeling depressed. What should i do?

Talk to someone you trust

If you are feeling depressed, the first step is to open up to someone you trust about how you are feeling, whether it is a close friend or family member. Letting others know you are struggling can help lift the burden and provide support. Speaking with a therapist or counselor can also help you work through your feelings.

Engage in self-care

Make sure to practice regular self-care. Getting enough sleep, eating healthy meals, exercising, and limiting alcohol or caffeine intake can help improve your mood. Engage in relaxing activities like yoga, meditation, or deep breathing. Spending time in nature and socializing can also help combat feelings of depression.

Challenge negative thoughts

Notice negative thoughts about yourself and try to challenge them with more balanced and realistic thinking. Try to be kind to yourself and avoid harsh self-criticism. Negative thoughts often involve extreme and irrational beliefs that aren't based in fact. Try to adopt a more balanced perspective.

Consider medication

If your depression is severe, medication may provide relief. Antidepressants are designed to balance brain chemicals and ease symptoms. It can take time to find the right medication or combination, so patience and persistence are important. See a psychiatrist to determine if medication is right for you and to find the appropriate treatment.

Don't ignore suicidal thoughts

If you are having suicidal thoughts, seek help immediately. Call emergency services or a suicide hotline, or go to your nearest hospital emergency room. Suicidal thoughts are a medical emergency and help is absolutely needed right away. Your mental health and safety should be a top priority. There are people who want to help you.

Depression can make you feel hopeless, but there are many resources available and steps you can take to start to feel better. Recovery may take time, so try to be patient and remember that with support and treatment, depression can get better. You deserve to live a happy, fulfilling life.


So in summary, if you're experiencing several of these symptoms for more than a couple of weeks, you may have depression. The good news is that depression is a very treatable condition, and with the right diagnosis and treatment plan, you can feel better. Speaking with a doctor or mental health professional is the best way to determine if you have depression and to explore treatment options tailored to your needs. Don't suffer in silence – your mental health and happiness are worth the effort to get the help you need. There are many resources and support systems available for people with depression. Reach out, be open and honest about your symptoms, and work with a professional to develop a comprehensive treatment plan. With proper treatment, you can overcome depression and start to enjoy life again. Also , check out this another article on Depression.



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